Type of Arms Trade

Type of Arms Trade

The term 'Licensing' refers to the case where the production takes place on the basis of licensing agreement between 2 companies if 2 different countries whereas the term “Unlicensed” production boot out the original holder of technology as well as the cases where the right of production is inherited by another legal entity(in case of successor states of USSR).
Also, term licensed or unlicensed merely indicate whether the production is based on licensed agreement or not; it didn’t say anything about whether the company is authorized by its government to produce weapons in question.

Arms Aid: Factsheet

Arms Aid is one of the most common and most prevalent methods of arms transfer. Aid often comes in form of money for the foreign military to buy weapon & equipment from the donor country. This aid is given to the countries in an alliance( Mutual Defence Assistance Programme-NATO), recipient countries which have a strategic partnership with donor countries or on a humanitarian basis.

Arms Trade

Arms Trade
Source: Wikipedia

The two ways of international arms transfer are:
Arms Trade
Arms Aid 

Because of the secret nature of many arms transaction, the difficulty arises in describing the boundaries of each of the above 2 categories.

Arms Trade in simpler terms is the process via which manufacturing countries along with private companies sell their weapons systems in the international arms market. Just like any other market fierce competition exist among the arms-producing nations/companies exist in the non-producing countries.

Theories of Conflict

Theories of Conflict

From the last 2 decades, there has been a tremendous growth towards approach on the study of conflict and conflict management.The exact boundary of this emerging field is difficult to ascertain reason being many scholars and writers have been distinguishing between sub-categories of this field. They are operating in different domains such as court and legal system, public policy, labor-management relations, inter-ethnic relations and international diplomacy and have deduced their ideas from the variety of sources such as law, psychology, management theories, group dynamics, peace research, decision theory, and sociology. 

India's Research and Development (R&D)

The research environment in India exhibits a substantial opportunity for MNCs across the globe due to the intellectual capacity present in the country.  Numerous Indian engineers and management personnel are working across the globe showcasing the highly trained manpower available at minimal cost. Thus resulting in several MNCs have shifted or in the process of shifting their research and development (R&D) base to India. These R&D bases are either focused on product development or to serve the local market or to benefit the parent organization by developing a new innovative generation of products faster to the market across the world.

Evolution of Soviet Military Doctrine: Pre-Gulf War Era (1990-91)

Gulf War 1991
Immediate Pre-Gulf War Era (1990-91)

This period marked the
  • end of communism, 
  • the breakup of the Warsaw Pact, 
  • the dissolution of the Soviet Republic,
  • the rise of Yeltsin, and 
  • formation of the Russian Federation. 

Soviet Military Doctrine : Under Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev

Gorbachev's Era (1983-89)
This era saw perhaps the most sweeping changes in Soviet military doctrine. In the early part of this period, the doctrine changed very little from what it had been under Brezhnev. In the mid-1980s, Gorbachev's perestroika (restructuring) markedly accelerated changes in military doctrine. An emphasis on the strategic defense, rather than preemptive offensive conventional strikes, marked the doctrine emerging from this period.

Soviet Military Doctrine : Under Brezhnev

Soviet Military Doctrine : Under Brezhnev

Brezhnev's Era (1964-82)
Only minor changes in thought regarding the nature of future war occurred under Brezhnev. Given the massive nuclear capabilities on both sides, military doctrine during this era reflected a belief that conflict would eventually involve large-scale exchanges of nuclear weapons. Conventional options and the concept of strategic operations within the Western TVD opposite NATO became dominant.